Vietnam Population: 95,261,021


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The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the communist North and anti-communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The communist leaders maintain tight control on political expression but have demonstrated some modest steps toward better protection of human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests, the vast majority connected to either land-use issues, calls for increased political space, or the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. The small-scale protests in the urban areas are often organized by human rights activists, but many occur in rural areas and involve various ethnic minorities such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands, H'mong in the Northwest Highlands, and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region.

Extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
Geographic coordinates: 16 10 N, 107 50 E
Area: total: 331,210 sq km
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km

Size comparison: about three times the size of Tennesee; slightly larger than New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 4,616 km border countries (3): Cambodia 1,158 km, China 1,297 km, Laos 2,161 km
Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 34.8% arable land 20.6%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 2.1% forest: 45%
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 46,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
Current Environment Issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%, other 4.3% note: 54 ethnic groups are recognized by the Vietnamese Government (2009 est.)
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Religions: Buddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009 est.)
Population: 95,261,021 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.84% (male 11,938,563/female 10,767,261)
15-24 years: 16.69% (male 8,240,861/female 7,658,711)
25-54 years: 45.22% (male 21,690,214/female 21,390,448)
55-64 years: 8.24% (male 3,610,716/female 4,238,569)
65 years and over: 6.01% (male 2,216,485/female 3,509,193) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 42.5%
youth dependency ratio: 32.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 9.6%
potential support ratio: 10.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.1 years
male: 28.9 years
female: 31.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.95% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 15.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 33.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.95% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Ho Chi Minh City 7.298 million; HANOI (capital) 3.629 million; Can Tho 1.175 million; Haiphong 1.075 million; Da Nang 952,000; Bien Hoa 834,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 54 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.4 years male: 70.9 years
female: 76.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 78.1% (2011)
Health expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.19 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 97.6% of population

urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 94.4% of population
rural: 69.7% of population
total: 78% of population

urban: 5.6% of population
rural: 30.3% of population
total: 22% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.48% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 255,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,900 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 12.1% (2013)
Education expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 96.3%
female: 92.8% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6% male: 5.3%
female: 6.8% (2013 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV
etymology: "Viet nam" translates as "Viet south" where "Viet" is an ethnic self identification dating to a second century B.C. kingdom and "nam" refers to its location in relation to other Viet kingdoms
Government type: communist state
Capital: name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)
geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural) provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 15 April 1992, effective 1 January 1995; amended 2001, 2013 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; note - the civil code of 2005 reflects a European-style civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tran Dai QUANG (since 2 April 2016); Vice President Dang Thi Ngoc THINH (since 7 April 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 7 April 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Truong Hoa BINH (since 9 April 2016), Vuong Dinh HUE (since 9 April 2016), Vu Duc DAM (since 13 November 2013), Trinh Dinh DUNG (since 9 April 2016), Pham Binh MINH (since 13 November 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by prime minister, appointed by the president, and confirmed by the National Assembly elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National Assembly from among its members for a single 5-year term; election last held on 2 April 2016 (next to be held in spring 2021); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly, confirmed by National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister, confirmed by National Assembly

election results: Tran Dai QUANG (CPV) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.9%; Nguyen Xuan PHUC elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 91.0%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 22 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPV 475, non-party CPV-approved 19, self-nominated 2; note - 496 candidates were elected
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of the chief justice and 13 judges) judge selection and term of office: chief justice elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a 5-year, renewable term; other judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and labor courts; Central Military Court; People's Special Courts; note - the National Assembly can establish special tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG] note: other parties proscribed
Political pressure groups and leaders: 8406 Bloc Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN Alliance for Democracy note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
National symbol(s): yellow, five-pointed star on red field; lotus blossom; national colors: red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Tien quan ca" (The Song of the Marching Troops)
lyrics/music: Nguyen Van CAO

note: adopted as the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945; it became the national anthem of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976; although it consists of two verses, only the first is used as the official anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pham Quang VINH (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
consulate(s) general: Houston, San Francisco consulate: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ted G. OSIUS III (since 16 December 2014)
embassy: Rose Garden Building, 170 Ngoc Khanh St., Hanoi
mailing address: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi; 4550 Hanoi Place, Washington, DC 20521-4550
telephone: [84] (4) 3850-5000
FAX: [84] (4) 3850-5010
consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
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Vietnam is a densely populated developing country that has been transitioning from the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy since 1986. Agriculture's share of economic output has shrunk from about 25% in 2000 to 18% in 2014, while industry's share increased from 36% to 38% in the same period. State-owned enterprises now account for only about 40% of GDP. Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic modernization and a more open economy. Vietnam joined the WTO in January 2007, which has promoted more competitive, export-driven industries. Vietnam was one of 12-nations that concluded the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement negotiations in 2015. Hanoi has oscillated between promoting growth and emphasizing macroeconomic stability in recent years. During 2015, Vietnam's managed currency, the dong, depreciated about 5%. Poverty has declined significantly, and Vietnam is working to create jobs to meet the challenge of a labor force that is growing by more than one million people every year. Vietnam is trying to reform its economy by restructuring public investment, state-owned enterprises, and the banking sector, although Hanoi’s progress in meeting its goals is lagging behind the proposed schedule. Vietnam's economy continues to face challenges from an undercapitalized banking sector and nonperforming loans.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $594.9 billion (2016 est.) $560.7 billion (2015 est.) $525.6 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $200.5 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.1% (2016 est.) 6.7% (2015 est.) 6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,400 (2016 est.) $6,100 (2015 est.) $5,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 28.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 31.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.6%
government consumption: 6.5%
investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
investment in inventories: 3.9%
exports of goods and services: 89.6%
imports of goods and services: -91.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 65.6%
government consumption: 6.5%
investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
investment in inventories: 3.9%
exports of goods and services: 89.6%
imports of goods and services: -91.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood
Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones
Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 54.93 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 48%
industry: 21%
services: 31% (2012)
Unemployment rate: 3.7% (2016 est.) 3.5% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 11.3% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 30.2% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.6 (2008) 36.1 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $48.04 billion
expenditures: $57.21 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 24% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 54.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 54.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as i
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2016 est.) 0.9% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $770 million (2016 est.) $906 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $169.2 billion (2016 est.) $162.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery
Exports - partners: US 21.2%, China 13.3%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 5.5%, Germany 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $161 billion (2016 est.) $154.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles
Imports - partners: China 34.1%, South Korea 14.3%, Singapore 6.5%, Japan 6.4%, Hong Kong 5.1%, Thailand 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $34.66 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $28.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $78.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $73.33 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $114.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $102.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $7.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $5.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $51.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $46.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $40.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: dong (VND) per US dollar - 22,347 (2016 est.) 21,909 (2015 est.) 21,909 (2014 est.) 21,189 (2013 est.) 20,859 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 135 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 125 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 4.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 39 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 48.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 50.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 333,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 163,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 141,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 392,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 27,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 211,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 8.99 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 8.99 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 699.4 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 142 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 122 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system

domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly

international: country code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, completed in 2009, provided new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stat (2015)
Broadcast media: government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcas (2008)
Internet country code: .vn
Internet users: total: 49.741 million percent of population: 52.7% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 45 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 38
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 72 km; condensate/gas 398 km; gas 955 km; oil 128 km; oil/gas/water 33 km; refined products 206 km; water 13 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,600 km
standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge; 253 km mixed gauge
narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 195,468 km
paved: 148,338 km
unpaved: 47,130 km (2013)
Waterways: 47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 579

by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 142, cargo 335, chemical tanker 23, container 19, liquefied gas 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 48, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1

registered in other countries: 86 (Cambodia 1, Kiribati 2, Mongolia 33, Panama 43, Taiwan 1, Tuvalu 6) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Cam Pha Port, Da Nang, Haiphong, Phu My, Quy Nhon
river port(s): Ho Chi Minh (Mekong) container port(s) (TEUs): Haiphong (1,018,794), Saigon New Port (3,071,777)
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Military branches: People's Armed Forces: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; includes Vietnam People's Navy (with Naval Infantry), Vietnam People's Air and Air Defense Force, Border Defense Command, Coast Guard) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for male compulsory and voluntary military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscription typically takes place twice annually and service obligation is 18 months (Army, Air Defense), 2 years (Navy and Air Force); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Force service; males may enroll in military schools at age 17 (2013)
Military expenditures: 2.37% of GDP (2012) 2.17% of GDP (2011) 2.37% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 11,000 (2015); note - Vietnam's stateless ethnic Chinese Cambodian population dates to the 1970s when thousands of Cambodians fled to Vietnam to escape the Khmer Rouge and were no longer recognized as Cambodian citizens; Vietnamese women who gave up their citizenship to marry foreign men have found themselves stateless after divorcing and returning home to Vietnam; the government addressed this problem in 2009, and Vietnamese women are beginning to reclaim their citizenship
Illicit drugs: minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns; enforces the death penalty for drug trafficking
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