Saudi Arabia Population: 33,091,113

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 History
Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman Al SAUD (Ibn Saud) after a 30-year campaign to unify most of the Arabian Peninsula. One of his male descendants rules the country today, as required by the country's 1992 Basic Law. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003. Major terrorist attacks in May and November 2003 spurred a strong ongoing campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism. From 2005 to 2015, King ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud incrementally modernized the Kingdom. Driven by personal ideology and political pragmatism, he introduced a series of social and economic initiatives, including expanding employment and social opportunities for women, attracting foreign investment, increasing the role of the private sector in the economy, and discouraging businesses from hiring foreign workers. These reforms have accelerated under King SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz, who ascended to the throne in 2015, and has since lifted the Kingdom's ban on women driving and allowed cinemas to operate for the first time in decades. Saudi Arabia saw some protests during the 2011 Arab Spring but not the level of bloodshed seen in protests elsewhere in the region. Shia Muslims in the Eastern Province protested primarily against the detention of political prisoners, endemic discrimination, and Bahraini and Saudi Government actions in Bahrain. Riyadh took a cautious but firm approach by arresting some protesters but releasing most of them quickly and by using its state-sponsored clerics to counter political and Islamist activism. The government held its first-ever elections in 2005 and 2011, when Saudis went to the polls to elect municipal councilors. In December 2015, women were allowed to vote and stand as candidates for the first time in municipal council elections, with 19 women winning seats. After King SALMAN ascended to the throne in 2015, he placed the first next-generation prince, MUHAMMAD BIN NAYIF bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud, in the line of succession as Crown Prince. He designated his son, MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud, as the Deputy Crown Prince. In March 2015, Saudi Arabia led a coalition of 10 countries in a military campaign to restore the legitimate government of Yemen, which had been ousted by Huthi forces allied with former president ALI ABDULLAH al-Salih. The war in Yemen has drawn international criticism for civilian casualties and its effect on the country’s dire humanitarian situation. In December 2015, then Deputy Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN announced Saudi Arabia would lead a 34-nation Islamic Coalition to fight terrorism (it has since grown to 41 nations). In May 2017, Saudi Arabia inaugurated the Global Center for Combatting Extremist Ideology (also known as "Etidal") as part of its ongoing efforts to counter violent extremism. In June 2017, King SALMAN elevated MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN to Crown Prince. The country remains a leading producer of oil and natural gas and holds about 16% of the world's proven oil reserves as of 2015. The government continues to pursue economic reform and diversification, particularly since Saudi Arabia's accession to the WTO in 2005, and promotes foreign investment in the Kingdom. In April 2016, the Saudi Government announced a broad set of socio-economic reforms, known as Vision 2030. Low global oil prices throughout 2015 and 2016 significantly lowered Saudi Arabia’s governmental revenue. In response, the government cut subsidies on water, electricity, and gasoline; reduced government employee compensation packages; and announced limited new land taxes. In coordination with OPEC and some key non-OPEC countries, Saudi Arabia agreed cut oil output in early 2017 to regulate supply and help elevate global prices.

 Geography
    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world without a river; extensive coastlines on the Persian Gulf and Red Sea allow for considerable shipping (especially of crude oil) through the Persian Gulf and Suez Canal
Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen
Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E
Area: total: 2,149,690 sq km
land: 2,149,690 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 4,272 km border countries (7): Iraq 811 km, Jordan 731 km, Kuwait 221 km, Oman 658 km, Qatar 87 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1307 km
Coastline: 2,640 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climate: harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
Terrain: mostly sandy desert
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use: agricultural land: 80.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 1.5% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 79.1% (2011 est.) forest: 0.5% (2011 est.)
other: 18.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 16,200 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms volcanism: despite many volcanic formations, there has been little activity in the past few centuries; volcanoes include Harrat Rahat, Harrat Khaybar, Harrat Lunayyir, and Jabal Yar
Current Environment Issues: desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills; air pollution; waste management
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Languages: Arabic (official)
Religions: Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-15% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2012 est.)

note: despite having a large expatriate community of various faiths (more than 30% of the population), most forms of public religious expression inconsistent with the government-sanctioned interpretation of Sunni Islam are restricted; non-Muslims are not allowed to have Saudi citizenship and non-Muslim places of worship are not permitted (2013)
Population: 33,091,113 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.) note: immigrants make up 37% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.74% (male 4,348,227 /female 4,170,944)
15-24 years: 15.58% (male 2,707,229 /female 2,447,519)
25-54 years: 49.88% (male 9,951,080 /female 6,554,525)
55-64 years: 5.48% (male 1,112,743 /female 700,553)
65 years and over: 3.32% (male 586,606 /female 511,687) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 40.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 36.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 23.2 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 29.9 years
male: 32.1 years
female: 27.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.63% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 15.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 83.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 6.907 million RIYADH (capital)
4.433 million Jeddah
1.967 million Mecca
1.43 million Medina
1.197 million Ad Dammam (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.52 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.59 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.3 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 13 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.7 years male: 74.2 years
female: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 24.6% (2016)
Physicians density: 2.39 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 97% of population
total: 97% of population

unimproved:
rural: 3% of population
total: 3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 8,200 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <500 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 35.4% (2016)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 94.7%
male: 97%
female: 91.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years male: 18 years female: 16 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 24.2% male: 17.4% female: 46.3% (2016 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
etymology: named after the ruling dynasty of the country, the House of Saud; the name "Arabia" can be traced back many centuries B.C., the ancient Egyptians referred to the region as "Ar Rabi"
Government type: absolute monarchy
Capital: name: Riyadh
geographic coordinates: 24 39 N, 46 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name derives from the Arabic word "riyadh," meaning "gardens," and refers to various oasis towns in the area that merged to form the city
Administrative divisions: 13 regions (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah (Northern Border), Al Jawf, Al Madinah al Munawwarah (Medina), Al Qasim, Ar Riyad (Riyadh), Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jazan, Makkah al Mukarramah (Mecca), Najran, Tabuk
Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification of the kingdom)
National holiday: Saudi National Day (Unification of the Kingdom), 23 September (1932)
Constitution: history: 1 March 1992 - Basic Law of Government, issued by royal decree, serves as the constitutional framework and is based on the Qur'an and the life and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad amendments: proposed by the king directly or proposed to the king by the Consultative Assembly or by the Council of Ministers; passage by the king through royal decree; Basic Law amended many times, last in 2005 (2016)
Legal system: Islamic (sharia) legal system with some elements of Egyptian, French, and customary law; note - several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees
Suffrage: 18 years of age; restricted to males; universal for municipal elections
Executive branch: chief of state: King and Prime Minister SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: King and Prime Minister SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch every 4 years and includes many royal family members elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; an Allegiance Council created by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes for a voice in selecting future Saudi kings
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (150 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms); note - in early 2013, the monarch granted women 30 seats on the Council note: composition as of 2013 - men 121, women 30, percent of women 19.9%
Judicial branch: highest courts: High Court (consists of the court chief and is organized into circuits with 3-judge panels, except for the criminal circuit, which has a 5-judge panel for cases involving major punishments) judge selection and term of office: High Court chief and chiefs of the High Court Circuits appointed by royal decree upon the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 10-member body of high-level judges and other judicial heads; new judges and assistant judges serve 1- and 2-year probations, respectively, before permanent assignment

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; Specialized Criminal Court, first-degree courts composed of general, criminal, personal status, and commercial courts; Labor Court; a hierarchy of administrative courts
Political parties and leaders: none
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB (nonregional member), AFESD, AMF, BIS, CAEU, CP, FAO, G-20, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): palm tree surmounting two crossed swords;
national colors: green, white
National anthem: name: "Aash Al Maleek" (Long Live Our Beloved King)
lyrics/music: Ibrahim KHAFAJI/Abdul Rahman al-KHATEEB

note: music adopted 1947, lyrics adopted 1984
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Prinecss REEMA bint Bandar Al Saud (since 8 July 2019)
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
FAX: [1] (202) 944-5983
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John P. ABIZAID (since 8 May 2019)
embassy: P.O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
telephone: [966] (11) 488-3800
FAX: [966] (11) 488-7360
consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)
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 Economy
Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses about 16% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 87% of budget revenues, 42% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. Saudi Arabia is encouraging the growth of the private sector in order to diversify its economy and to employ more Saudi nationals. Approximately 6 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, particularly in the oil and service sectors; at the same time, however, Riyadh is struggling to reduce unemployment among its own nationals. Saudi officials are particularly focused on employing its large youth population. In 2017, the Kingdom incurred a budget deficit estimated at 8.3% of GDP, which was financed by bond sales and drawing down reserves. Although the Kingdom can finance high deficits for several years by drawing down its considerable foreign assets or by borrowing, it has cut capital spending and reduced subsidies on electricity, water, and petroleum products and recently introduced a value-added tax of 5%. In January 2016, Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN announced that Saudi Arabia intends to list shares of its state-owned petroleum company, ARAMCO - another move to increase revenue and outside investment. The government has also looked at privatization and diversification of the economy more closely in the wake of a diminished oil market. Historically, Saudi Arabia has focused diversification efforts on power generation, telecommunications, natural gas exploration, and petrochemical sectors. More recently, the government has approached investors about expanding the role of the private sector in the health care, education and tourism industries. While Saudi Arabia has emphasized their goals of diversification for some time, current low oil prices may force the government to make more drastic changes ahead of their long-run timeline.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.775 trillion (2017 est.) $1.79 trillion (2016 est.) $1.761 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $686.7 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.9% (2017 est.) 1.7% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $54,500 (2017 est.) $56,400 (2016 est.) $56,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 30.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 27.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 26.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 41.3% (2017 est.) government consumption: 24.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 4.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 34.8% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -28.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.6% (2017 est.) industry: 44.2% (2017 est.) services: 53.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk
Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics, metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction
Industrial production growth rate: -2.4% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 13.8 million (2017 est.) note: comprised of 3.1 million Saudis and 10.7 million non-Saudis
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 6.7%
industry: 21.4%
services: 71.9% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6% (2017 est.) 5.6% (2016 est.) note: data are for total population; unemployment among Saudi nationals is more than double
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.9 (2013 est.)
Budget: revenues: 181 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 241.8 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -8.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 17.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.9% (2017 est.) 2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $15.23 billion (2017 est.) -$23.87 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $221.1 billion (2017 est.) $183.6 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90% (2012 est.)
Exports - partners: Japan 12.2%, China 11.7%, South Korea 9%, India 8.9%, US 8.3%, UAE 6.7%, Singapore 4.2% (2017)
Imports: $119.3 billion (2017 est.) $127.8 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles
Imports - partners: China 15.4%, US 13.6%, UAE 6.5%, Germany 5.8%, Japan 4.1%, India 4.1%, South Korea 4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $496.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $535.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $205.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $189.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $264.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $258.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $56.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $46.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $421.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $483.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $467.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SAR) per US dollar - 3.75 (2017 est.) 3.75 (2016 est.) 3.75 (2015 est.) 3.75 (2014 est.) 3.75 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 324.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 296.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 82.94 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 10.13 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 7.341 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 266.2 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 2.476 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 3.287 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.784 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 609,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 109.3 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 109.3 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 8.619 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 657.1 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 40,210,965
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 141 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system including a combination of extensive microwave radio relays, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables; broadband is available with DSL, fibre, and wireless; mobile penetration is steep in Saudi Arabia; 4G/5G use in early 2019 (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 13 per 100 mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly 141 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 966; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region) (2016)
Broadcast media: broadcast media are state-controlled; state-run TV operates 4 networks; Saudi Arabia is a major market for pan-Arab satellite TV broadcasters; state-run radio operates several networks; multiple international broadcasters are available
Internet country code: .sa
Internet users: total: 20,768,456
percent of population: 73.8% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 214 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 82
(2017) over 3,047 m: 33 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 27 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 132
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 72 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 37 (2013)
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Heliports: 10 (2013)
Pipelines: 209 km condensate, 2940 km gas, 1183 km liquid petroleum gas, 5117 km oil, 1151 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 5,410 km
(2016) standard gauge: 5,410 km 1.435-m gauge (with branch lines and sidings) (2016)
Roadways: total 221,372 km
(2006) paved: 47,529 km (includes 3,891 km of expressways) (2006)
unpaved: 173,843 km (2006)
Merchant marine: total 380

by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 1, general cargo 19, oil tanker 65, other 290 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Jeddah, King Abdulla, Yanbu' container port(s) (TEUs): Ad Dammam (1,582,388), Jeddah (4,150,000), King Abdulla (1,695,322) (2017)
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 Military
Military branches: Ministry of Defense: Royal Saudi Land Forces, Royal Saudi Naval Forces (includes Marine Forces and Special Forces), Royal Saudi Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya as-Sa'udiya), Royal Saudi Air Defense Forces, Royal Saudi Strategic Rocket Forces, Ministry of the National Guard (SANG) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 9.85% of GDP (2016) 13.33% of GDP (2015) 10.68% of GDP (2014) 8.98% of GDP (2013) 7.68% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 30,000 (Yemen) (2017)
stateless persons: 70,000 (2018); note - thousands of biduns (stateless Arabs) are descendants of nomadic tribes who were not officially registered when national borders were established, while others migrated to Saudi Arabia in search of jobs; some have temporary identification cards that must be renewed every five years, but their rights remain restricted; most Palestinians have only legal resident status; some naturalized Yemenis were made stateless after being stripped of their passports when Yemen backed Iraq in its invasion of Kuwait in 1990; Saudi women cannot pass their citizenship on to their children, so if they marry a non-national, their children risk statelessness
Illicit drugs: regularly enforces the death penalty for drug traffickers, with foreigners being convicted and executed disproportionately; improving anti-money-laundering legislation and enforcement
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