Saint Pierre and Miquelon Population: 5,471

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 History
First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions. They attained the status of an overseas collectivity in 2003.

 Geography
    Vegetation scanty; the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland
Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)
Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 W
Area: total: 242 sq km
land: 242 sq km
water: 0 sq km

note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Size comparison: one and half times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 120 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy
Terrain: mostly barren rock
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: agricultural land: 8.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 8.7% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.) forest: 12.5% (2011 est.)
other: 78.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard
Current Environment Issues: overfishing; recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment
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 People
Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Languages: French (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%
Population: 5,471 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.88% (male 420 /female 394)
15-24 years: 8.99% (male 255 /female 237)
25-54 years: 41.44% (male 1,109 /female 1,158)
55-64 years: 13.69% (male 389 /female 360)
65 years and over: 21% (male 489 /female 660) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 47.2 years
male: 46.7 years
female: 47.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.13% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 90.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.36% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 6,000 SAINT-PIERRE (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.7 years male: 78.4 years
female: 83.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
etymology: Saint-Pierre is named after Saint PETER, the patron saint of fishermen; Miquelon may be a corruption of the Basque name Mikelon
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France
Capital: name: Saint-Pierre
geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
etymology: named after Saint Peter, the patron saint of fisherman
Administrative divisions: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon
Independence: none (overseas collectivity collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
National holiday: Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790)
Constitution: history: 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) amendments: amendment procedures of France's constitution apply (2018)
Legal system: French civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Thierry DEVIMEUX (since 17 January 2018)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Stephane LENORMAND (since 24 October 2017)

cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April and 6 May 2017 (next to be held in 2022); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - Saint Pierre 15, Miquelon 4; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 6-year terms); Saint Pierre and Miquelon indirectly elects 1 senator to the French Senate by an electoral college to serve a 6-year term and directly elects 1 deputy to the French National Assembly by absolute majority vote to serve a 5-year term

elections: Territorial Council - last held on 19 March 2017 (next to be held in March 2023) French Senate - last held on 28 September 2017 (next to be held no later than September 2020) French National Assembly - last held on 18 June 2018 (next to be held by June 2022)

election results: Territorial Council - percent of vote by party - AD 70.2%, Cap sur l'Avenir 29.8%; seats by party - AD 17, Cap sur l'Avenir 2; composition - men 10, women 9, percent of women 47.4% French Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 1 (affiliated with UMP) French National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ensemble pour l'Avenir 1 (affiliated with PRG); the Republicans (LR) 1
Judicial branch: highest courts: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA) judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA

subordinate courts: NA
Political parties and leaders: Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UMP) Cap sur l'Avenir [Annick GIRARDIN] (affiliated with Left Radical Party) Togerther for the Future (Ensemble pour l'Avenir) (affiliated with PRG) SPM ensemble
International organization participation: UPU, WFTU (NGOs)
National symbol(s): 16th-century sailing ship
National anthem:

note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
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 Economy
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. The services sector accounted for 86% of GDP in 2010, the last year data is available for. Government employment accounts for than 46% of the GDP, and 78% of the population is working age. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector. Trade is the second largest sector in terms of value added created, where it contributes significantly to economic activity. The extractive industries and energy sector is the third largest sector of activity in the archipelago, attributable in part to the construction of a new thermal power plant in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $261.3 million (2015 est.) $215.3 million (2006 est.)

note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million
GDP (official exchange rate): $261.3 million (2015 est.) (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: n/a
GDP - per capita (PPP): $46,200 (2006 est.) $34,900 (2005) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2% (2006 est.) industry: 15% (2006 est.) services: 83% (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products: vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: n/a
Labor force: 4,429 (2015)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 18%
industry: 41%
services: 41% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2015 est.) 9.9% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 70 million (1996 est.)
expenditures: 60 million (1996 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 3.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2015) 4.5% (2010)
Exports: $6.641 million (2010 est.) $5.5 million (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts
Imports: $95.35 million (2010 est.) $68.2 million (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
Debt - external: n/a
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 46 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 42.78 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 27,600 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 96% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 660 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 650 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 100,200 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate (2018)

international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system
Broadcast media: 2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network
Internet country code: .pm
Internet users: total: 4,500
percent of population: 79.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
(2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Roadways: total 117 km
(2009) paved: 80 km (2009)
unpaved: 37 km (2009)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saint-Pierre
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of France
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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