Pakistan Population: 207,862,518

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 History
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India assisted an indigenous movement reacting to the marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998. India-Pakistan relations improved in the mid-2000s but have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks and have been further strained by attacks in India by militants believed to be based in Pakistan. Imran KHAN took office as prime minister in 2018 after the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI) party won a plurality of seats in the July 2018 general elections. Pakistan has been engaged in a decades-long armed conflict with militant groups that target government institutions and civilians, including the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.

 Geography
    Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Area: total: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 7,257 km border countries (4): Afghanistan 2670 km, China 438 km, India 3190 km, Iran 959 km
Coastline: 1,046 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain: divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
Natural resources: arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use: agricultural land: 35.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 27.6% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 6.5% (2011 est.) forest: 2.1% (2011 est.)
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 202,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution and noise pollution in urban areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups: Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Saraiki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Religions: Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
Population: 207,862,518 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.) note: provisional results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,774,000
Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.76% (male 32,828,078 /female 31,118,626)
15-24 years: 20.94% (male 22,446,320 /female 21,076,265)
25-54 years: 38.04% (male 41,021,803 /female 38,039,766)
55-64 years: 5.7% (male 5,979,712 /female 5,871,574)
65 years and over: 4.56% (male 4,399,926 /female 5,080,448) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 65.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 57.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 24.1 years
male: 24.1 years
female: 24.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.41% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 21.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 36.7% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.53% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 15.4 million Karachi
11.738 million Lahore
3.311 million Faisalabad
2.156 million Rawalpindi
2.11 million Gujranwala
1.061 million ISLAMABAD (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.6 years (2017/18 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 50.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 53.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.4 years male: 66.4 years
female: 70.5 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.55 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 34.2% (2017/18)
Physicians density: 0.98 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 0.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93.9% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 91.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 83.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 51.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 63.5% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 16.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 150,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,200 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23.1% (2018)
Education expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 57.9%
male: 69.5%
female: 45.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 9 years female: 8 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.8% ILO data cited at World Bank, accessed 7/25/18 male: 8.2% female: 6.8% (2018 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
etymology: the word "pak" means "pure" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure"
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: derived from two words: "Islam," an Urdu word referring to the religion of Islam, and "-abad," a Persian suffix indicating an "inhabited place" or "city," to render the meaning "City of Islam"
Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 2 Pakistan-administered areas*, and 1 capital territory**; Azad Kashmir*, Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Sindh
Independence: 14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday: Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Constitution: history: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times) amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses; amended many times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system: common law system with Islamic law influence
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch: chief of state: President Arif ALVI (since 9 September 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Imran KHAN (since 18 August 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 4 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on 17 August 2018

election results: Arif ALVI elected president; Electoral College vote - Arif ALVI (PTI) 352, Fazl-ur-REHMAN (MMA) 184, Aitzaz AHSAN (PPP) 124; Imran KHAN elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - Imran KHAN (PTI) 176, Shehbaz SHARIF (PML-N) 96
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shueera consists of: Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)and the Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (85 seats; members directly elected in single- and 2-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021) National Assembly - last held on 25 July 2018 (next to be held on 25 July 2023)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML-N 15, PPP 12, PTI 6, PkMAP 2, NP 2, JUI-F 2, JI 1, MQM-P 1, PML-F 1, independent 10 National Assembly - percent of votes by party - PTI 31.9%, PML-N 24.4%, PPP 13.1%, MMA 4.8%, MQM 1.4%, PML-Q 1%, BAP 0.6%, BNP 0.4%, other 11.1%,independent 11.4%; seats by party - PTI 157, PML-N 84, PPP 54, MMA 16, MQM 7, BAP 5, PML-Q 5, BNP 4, other 5, independent 4; 1 seat vacant note: since political reforms in 2011, legislation from the Consultative Council is submitted to the Council of State for review by the Royal Court) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges) judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission, a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals, and appointed by the president; justices can serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues, such as taxation, banking, and customs
Political parties and leaders: Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN] Awami Muslim League or AML [Sheikh Rashid AHMED] Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI] Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL] Grand Democratic Alliance or GDA (alliance of several parties) Jamhoori Wattan Party or JWP [Shahzain BUGTI] Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ] Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN] Muttahida Quami Movement-London or MQM-L [Altaf HUSSAIN] (MQM split into two factions in 2016) Muttahida Quami Movement-Pakistan or MQM-P [Dr. Khalid Maqbool SIDDIQUI] (MQM split into two factions in 2016) Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Fazl-ur- REHMAN] (alliance of several parties) National Party or NP [Mir Hasil Khan BIZENJO] Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party or PMAP or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI] Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II] Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Shehbaz SHARIF] Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid-e-Azam Group or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN] Pakistan Peoples Party or PPP [Bilawal BHUTTO ZARDARI, Asif Ali ZARDARI] Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice) [Imran KHAN]Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL] Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO] note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently
International organization participation: ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): five-pointed star between the horns of a waxing crescent moon, jasmine;
national colors: green, white
National anthem: name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA

note: adopted 1954; also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Asad Majeed KHAN (since 11 January 2019)
chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York consulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ambassador Paul W. JONES (since 24 September 2018)
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20521-8100
telephone: [92] 51-201-4000
FAX: [92] 51-227-6427
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar consulate(s): Peshawar
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 Economy
Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population, with English-language skills less prevalent outside urban centers. Despite some progress in recent years in both security and energy, a challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have traditionally deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for more than half of Pakistan's export earnings; Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually increased since 2012, and was 5.3% in 2017. Official unemployment was 6% in 2017, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Human development continues to lag behind most of the region. In 2013, Pakistan embarked on a $6.3 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility, which focused on reducing energy shortages, stabilizing public finances, increasing revenue collection, and improving its balance of payments position. The program concluded in September 2016. Although Pakistan missed several structural reform criteria, it restored macroeconomic stability, improved its credit rating, and boosted growth. The Pakistani rupee has remained relatively stable against the US dollar since 2015, though it declined about 10% between November 2017 and March 2018. Balance of payments concerns have reemerged, however, as a result of a significant increase in imports and weak export and remittance growth. Pakistan must continue to address several longstanding issues, including expanding investment in education, healthcare, and sanitation; adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters; improving the country’s business environment; and widening the country’s tax base. Given demographic challenges, Pakistan’s leadership will be pressed to implement economic reforms, promote further development of the energy sector, and attract foreign investment to support sufficient economic growth necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, much of which is under the age of 25. In an effort to boost development, Pakistan and China are implementing the "China-Pakistan Economic Corridor" (CPEC) with $60 billion in investments targeted towards energy and other infrastructure projects. Pakistan believes CPEC investments will enable growth rates of over 6% of GDP by laying the groundwork for increased exports. CPEC-related obligations, however, have raised IMF concern about Pakistan’s capital outflows and external financing needs over the medium term.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.061 trillion (2017 est.) $1.007 trillion (2016 est.) $962.8 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars data are for fiscal years
GDP (official exchange rate): $305 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.4% (2017 est.) 4.6% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.) note: data are for fiscal years
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,400 (2017 est.) $5,200 (2016 est.) $5,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars data are for fiscal years
Gross national saving: 12% of GDP (2017 est.) 13.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 14.7% of GDP (2015 est.) note: data are for fiscal years GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 82% (2017 est.) government consumption: 11.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 14.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 8.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -17.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 24.4% (2016 est.) industry: 19.1% (2016 est.) services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, surgical instruments, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 63.89 million (2017 est.) note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 42.3%
industry: 22.6%
services: 35.1% (FY2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6% (2017 est.) 6% (2016 est.) note: Pakistan has substantial underemployment
Population below poverty line: 29.5% (FY2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 30.7 (FY2013) 30.9 (FY2011)
Budget: revenues: 46.81 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 64.49 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are for fiscal years
Taxes and other revenues: 15.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 67% of GDP (2017 est.) 67.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (2017 est.) 2.9% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$12.44 billion (2017 est.) -$4.867 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $32.88 billion (2017 est.) $21.97 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, surgical instruments, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners: US 17.7%, UK 7.7%, China 6%, Germany 5.8%, Afghanistan 5.2%, UAE 4.5%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $53.11 billion (2017 est.) $42.69 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners: China 27.4%, UAE 13.7%, US 4.9%, Indonesia 4.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $18.46 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $22.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $82.19 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $70.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $43.21 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $39.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.983 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $32.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 105.1 (2017 est.) 104.769 (2016 est.) 104.769 (2015 est.) 102.769 (2014 est.) 101.1 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 109.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 92.33 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 490 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 26.9 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 62% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 27% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 89,720 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 13,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 168,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 332.2 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 291,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 557,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 25,510 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 264,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 39.05 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 45.05 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 6.003 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 588.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 179.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 144,525,637
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, but fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 4G mobile services broadly available; 5G not before 2030; mobile platform and mobile broadband doing well (2018)

domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 71 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; developed 510 mile fiber optic land connection to China; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries
Broadcast media: media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 8 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 30 stations; nearly 200 commercially licensed, privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2019)
Internet country code: .pk
Internet users: total: 31,338,715
percent of population: 15.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 151 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 108
(2017) over 3,047 m: 15 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 20 (2017)
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 43
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Heliports: 23 (2013)
Pipelines: 12,984 km gas, 3,470 km oil, 1,170 km refined products (2019)
Railways: total 11,881 km
(2019)
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (2019) broad gauge: 11,492 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified) (2019)
Roadways: total 263,775 km
(2019) paved: 185,063 km (includes 708 km of expressways) (2019)
unpaved: 78,712 km (2019)
Merchant marine: total 53

by type: bulk carrier 5, oil tanker 7, other 41 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (2,224,000) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim
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 Military
Military branches: Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fizaia) (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2019)
Military expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2017) 3.56% of GDP (2016) 3.54% of GDP (2015) 3.48% of GDP (2014) 3.47% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 2.58-2.68 million (1.4 million registered, 1.18-1.28 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2017) IDPs: 119,000 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2018)
Illicit drugs: significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 930 hectares in 2015; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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