Mali Population: 18,429,893

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 History
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha Oumar KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. A French-led international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month, most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally mediated peace accord in June 2015, however, the parties to the peace accord have made little progress in the accord's implementation, despite a June 2017 target for its completion. Furthermore, extremist groups outside the peace process made steady inroads into rural areas of central Mali following the consolidation of three major terrorist organizations in March 2017. In central Mali, terrorist groups have exploited age-old ethnic rivalries between pastoralists and sedentary communities. Intercommunal violence incidents such as targeted killings occur with increasing regularity. KEITA was reelected president in 2018 in an election that was deemed credible by international observers, despite some security and logistic shortfalls.

 Geography
    Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Location: interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 7,908 km border countries (7): Algeria 1359 km, Burkina Faso 1325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1062 km, Mauritania 2236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower, note, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use: agricultural land: 34.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 5.6% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 28.4% (2011 est.) forest: 10.2% (2011 est.)
other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,780 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; loss of pasture land; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups: Bambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peuhl) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
Languages: French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peuhl/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3% (2009 est.) note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language
Religions: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
Population: 18,429,893 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.03% (male 4,449,790 /female 4,402,076)
15-24 years: 18.89% (male 1,657,609 /female 1,823,453)
25-54 years: 26.36% (male 2,243,158 /female 2,615,695)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 346,003 /female 335,733)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 277,834 /female 278,542) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 101.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 96.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 15.8 years
male: 15.2 years
female: 16.5 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.98% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 43.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 42.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.447 million BAMAKO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.8 years (2012/13 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 67.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 73.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 61.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.8 years male: 58.6 years
female: 63 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 15.6% (2015)
Physicians density: 0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 64.1% of population
total: 77% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 35.9% of population
total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 37.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 16.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 24.7% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 62.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 83.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.2% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,300 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 25% (2015)
Education expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 33.1%
male: 45.1%
female: 22.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 7 years male: 8 years female: 7 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 2.3% male: 2.5% female: 2.2% (2016 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
etymology: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name in the Bambara language can mean either "crocodile tail" or "crocodile river" and three crocodiles appear on the city seal
Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Menaka, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Taoudenni, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - Menaka and Taoudenni were legislated in 2016, but implementation has not been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names
Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992, suspended briefly in 2012 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by members of the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional sections on the integrity of the state, its republican and secular form of government, and its multiparty system cannot be amended; amended 1999 (2017)
Legal system: civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Boubou CISSE (since 23 April 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 July 2018 with a runoff on 12 August 2018; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single and multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; 13 seats reserved for citizens living abroad; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next originally scheduled for 25 November 2018, but postponed to 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - RPM 29.4%, URD 22.6%, ADEMA 11.5, other 36.5%; seats by party - RPM 66, URD 17, ADEMA 16, FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, CNID 4, other 24, independent 4; composition - men 133, women 14, percent of women 9.5%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); magistrate courts; first instance courts; labor dispute courts; special court of state security
Political parties and leaders: African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO] Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Tiemoko SANGARE] Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP-Maliba [Amadou THIAM] Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA] Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE] Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO] Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR] Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition of smaller opposition parties) National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL] Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME] Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA] Rally for Mali or RPM [Boucary TRETA] Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Great Mosque of Djenne;
national colors: green, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamadou NIMAGA (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since 15 March 2019)
embassy: located off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge west of the Bamako central district; ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
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 Economy
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, landlocked Mali depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks. Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will depend on global price trends. Although the political coup in 2012 slowed Mali’s growth, the economy has since bounced back, with GDP growth above 5% in 2014-17, although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital continue to constrain economic development. Higher rainfall helped to boost cotton output in 2017, and the country’s 2017 budget increased spending more than 10%, much of which was devoted to infrastructure and agriculture. Corruption and political turmoil are strong downside risks in 2018 and beyond.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $41.22 billion (2017 est.) $39.1 billion (2016 est.) $36.97 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $15.37 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.4% (2017 est.) 5.8% (2016 est.) 6.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,200 (2017 est.) $2,100 (2016 est.) $2,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 15.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 82.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 17.4% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 19.3% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 22.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 41.8% (2017 est.) industry: 18.1% (2017 est.) services: 40.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 6.447 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and
services: 20% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.9% (2017 est.) 7.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.1 (2001) 50.5 (1994)
Budget: revenues: 3.075 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.513 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 35.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 36% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2017 est.) -1.8% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$886 million (2017 est.) -$1.015 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $3.06 billion (2017 est.) $2.803 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners: Switzerland 31.8%, UAE 15.4%, Burkina Faso 7.8%, Cote dIvoire 7.3%, South Africa 5%, Bangladesh 4.6% (2017)
Imports: $3.644 billion (2017 est.) $3.403 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: Senegal 24.4%, China 13.2%, Cote dIvoire 9%, France 7.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $647.8 million (31 December 2017 est.) $395.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $4.192 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.981 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $3.845 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.266 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $286.2 million (31 December 2017 est.) $62.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.3 (2017 est.) 593.01 (2016 est.) 593.01 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.489 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 2.982 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 800 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 590,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 68% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 31% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 22,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 20,610 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.388 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 20,217,697
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas; geography a challenge for telecommunications; poverty, security, high illiteracy and low PC use has taken its toll;  4 mobile operators in market; potential for mobile broadband services; local plans for Internet Exchange Point (2018)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 113 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean); new competition with submarine fiber optic cables in the region
Broadcast media: national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)
Internet country code: .ml
Internet users: total: 1,940,978
percent of population: 11.1% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 25 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 8
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 17
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 593 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 139,107 km
(2018)
Waterways: 1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
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 Military
Military branches: Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures: 2.63% of GDP (2016) 2.43% of GDP (2015) 1.56% of GDP (2014) 1.2% of GDP (2013) 1.2% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 15,319 (Mauritania), 8,457 (Burkina Faso) (2019) IDPs: 168,515 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2019)
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