Mali Population: 17,467,108


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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015.

Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Location: interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 7,908 km border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower

note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use: agricultural land: 34.1% arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4% forest: 10.2%
other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,780 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups: Bambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
Languages: French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3% note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language (2009 est.)
Religions: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
Population: 17,467,108 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.27% (male 4,145,290/female 4,110,642)
15-24 years: 19.19% (male 1,601,474/female 1,751,161)
25-54 years: 26.82% (male 2,173,415/female 2,511,844)
55-64 years: 3.76% (male 327,923/female 329,296)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 257,519/female 258,544) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 100.2%
youth dependency ratio: 95.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 19.8% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 16.2 years
male: 15.5 years
female: 16.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.96% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 44.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BAMAKO (capital) 2.515 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.8 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 100 deaths/1,000 live births male: 106.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 93.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.8 years male: 53.9 years
female: 57.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.95 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 10.3% (2012/13)
Health expenditures: 6.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 64.1% of population
total: 77% of population

urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 35.9% of population
total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 37.5% of population
rural: 16.1% of population
total: 24.7% of population

urban: 62.5% of population
rural: 83.9% of population
total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.25% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 124,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,500 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 5.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 27.9% (2006)
Education expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.7%
male: 48.2%
female: 29.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11.1% male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic note: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - two new regions, Menaka and Taoudenni, were reportedly created in early 2016, but these have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution: several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999, suspended briefly in 2012 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 8 January 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 July 2013 with a runoff on 11 August 2013 (election delayed from April 2012 due to a coup in March 2012); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held in two rounds on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was canceled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDR coalition 69 (RPM 66, PARENA 3), ADP coalition 37 (ADEMA-PASG 16, URD 17, CNID 4), FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, ASMA-CFP 3, PDES 3, MPR 3, independent 4, other 12; note - 13 seats were from voters abroad
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms

subordinate courts: subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); magistrate courts; first instance courts; labor dispute courts; special court of state security
Political parties and leaders: African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO] Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Dionconda TRAORE] Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (coalition including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE) Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA] Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE] Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO] Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR] Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE) National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL] Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME] Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA] Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] (ruling party) Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
National symbol(s): Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tiena COULIBALY (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBEE (since 2015)
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
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Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country that depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks. Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will largely depend on global price trends. Mali’s economic performance has improved since 2013 although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital remain hindrances to sustained growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $38.09 billion (2016 est.) $36.16 billion (2015 est.) $34.13 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $14.1 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.3% (2016 est.) 6% (2015 est.) 7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,300 (2016 est.) $2,200 (2015 est.) $2,200 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 13.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.8% of GDP (2015 est.) 19.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 71.1%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -29.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 71.1%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -29.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 6.283 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and
services: 20% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 30% (2015 est.) 8.1% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.1 (2001) 50.5 (1994)
Budget: revenues: $2.571 billion
expenditures: $3.112 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 27.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 25.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.3% (2016 est.) 1.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$848 million (2016 est.) -$668 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.79 billion (2016 est.) $2.513 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners: Switzerland 48.5%, China 9.4%, India 9.1%, Bangladesh 8%, Thailand 4.5%, Indonesia 4.4% (2015)
Imports: $2.904 billion (2016 est.) $2.744 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: Cote dIvoire 9.9%, France 9.5%, Senegal 7.7%, China 7% (2015)
Debt - external: $3.626 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.334 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $2.645 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $57.48 million (31 December 2016 est.) $49.48 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.16 (2015 est.) 591.16 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 600,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 48.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 7,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 7,486 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 22.699 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 130 per 100 persons

international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmiss (2007)
Internet country code: .ml
Internet users: total: 1.753 million percent of population: 10.3% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 25 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 593 km

narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 22,474 km
paved: 5,522 km
unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
Waterways: 1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
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Military branches: Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.44% of GDP (2012) 1.51% of GDP (2011) 1.44% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 13,539 (Mauritania) (2015) IDPs: 36,690 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2016)
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