Guinea-Bissau Population: 1,759,159


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Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free, multiparty election. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was reelected, pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from a long-term illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place. Following mediation by the Economic Community of Western African States, a civilian transitional government assumed power in 2012 and remained until Jose Mario VAZ won a free and fair election in 2014. A long-running dispute between factions in the ruling PAIGC party has brought the government to a political impasse; there have been five prime ministers since August 2015.

This small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Geographic coordinates: 12 00 N, 15 00 W
Area: total: 36,125 sq km
land: 28,120 sq km
water: 8,005 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 762 km border countries (2): Guinea 421 km, Senegal 341 km
Coastline: 350 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: mostly low-lying coastal plain with a deeply indented estuarine coastline rising to savanna in east; numerous off-shore islands including the Arquipelago Dos Bijagos consisting of 18 main islands and many small islets
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Land use: agricultural land: 44.8% arable land 8.2%; permanent crops 6.9%; permanent pasture 29.7% forest: 55.2%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 250 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)
adjective: Bissau-Guinean
Ethnic groups: Fulani 28.5%, Balanta 22.5%, Mandinga 14.7%, Papel 9.1%, Manjaco 8.3%, Beafada 3.5%, Mancanha 3.1%, Bijago 2.1%, Felupe 1.7%, Mansoanca 1.4%, Balanta Mane 1%, other 1.8%, none 2.2% (2008 est.)
Languages: Crioulo 90.4%, Portuguese 27.1% (official), French 5.1%, English 2.9%, other 2.4% note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2008 est.)
Religions: Muslim 45.1%, Christian 22.1%, animist 14.9%, none 2%, unspecified 15.9% (2008 est.)
Population: 1,759,159 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.28% (male 344,976/female 346,102)
15-24 years: 20.17% (male 176,050/female 178,842)
25-54 years: 32.53% (male 285,258/female 286,955)
55-64 years: 4.62% (male 31,030/female 50,215)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 22,121/female 37,610) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 78.4%
youth dependency ratio: 72.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7%
potential support ratio: 17.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 20 years
male: 19.5 years
female: 20.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 32.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 14.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 49.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BISSAU (capital) 492,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.62 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 549 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 87.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 77.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.6 years male: 48.6 years
female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.16 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 14.2% (2010)
Health expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.8% of population
rural: 60.3% of population
total: 79.3% of population

urban: 1.2% of population
rural: 39.7% of population
total: 20.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 33.5% of population
rural: 8.5% of population
total: 20.8% of population

urban: 66.5% of population
rural: 91.5% of population
total: 79.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.69% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 42,000 (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,900 (2014 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 17% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.9%
male: 71.8%
female: 48.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years male: NA
female: NA (2006)
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Country name: `conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea note: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; "Bissau" distinguishes the country from neighboring Guinea
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Bissau
geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama/Bijagos, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence: 24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Constitution: promulgated 16 May 1984; amended 1991, 1993, 1996; note - constitution suspended following military coup in April 2012 and restored in 2014 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law which incorporated Portuguese law at independence and influenced by early French civil code and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Mario VAZ (since 17 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Umaro Sissoco EMBALO (since 18 November 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 April 2014 with a runoff on 18 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People's Assembly

election results: first round - Jose Mario VAZ (PAIGC) 41%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (independent) 25.1%, other 33.9%; Jose Mario VAZ elected president in second round - Jose Mario VAZ 61.9%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM 38.1%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (102 seats; members directly elected in 2 single- and 27 multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 13 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 48.0%, PRS 30.8%, other parties 21.2%; seats by party - PAIGC 57, PRS 41, other 4
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Suprema Tribunal Justica (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers); note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdiction judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and judiciary discipline; judges appointed by the president for life

subordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military court
Political parties and leaders: African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cabo Verde or PAIGC [Domingos Simoes PEREIRA] Democratic Convergence Party or PCD [Vicente FERNANDES] New Democracy Party or PND [Mamadu Iaia DJALO] Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Alberto NAMBEIA] Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES] Union for Change or UM [Agnelo REGALA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Chamber of Commerce of Agriculture, Industry, and Services
National symbol(s): black star; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
National anthem: name: "Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada" (This Is Our Beloved Country)
lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He

note: adopted 1974; a delegation from then Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRAL, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and a military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal, currently Ambassador James P. ZUMWALT, is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
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Guinea-Bissau is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, cashew nut exports, and foreign assistance. Two out of three Bissau-Guineans remain below the absolute poverty line. The legal economy is based on farming and fishing, but illegal logging and trafficking in narcotics are also important economic activities. The combination of limited economic prospects, weak institutions, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe while trade in illegal logging, food, and fishing is also significant. Guinea-Bissau has substantial potential for development of mineral resources including phosphates, bauxite, and mineral sands. The country’s climate and soil make it feasible to grow a wide range of cash crops, fruit, vegetables, and tubers; however, cashews generate more than 80% of export receipts and are the main source of income for many rural communities. With renewed donor support following elections in April-May 2014 and a successful regional bond issuance, the government of Guinea-Bissau made progress paying salaries, settling domestic arrears, and gaining more control over revenues and expenditures, but was deposed by the President in August 2015. A political stalemate since then has resulted in weak governance.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.851 billion (2016 est.) $2.72 billion (2015 est.) $2.596 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.168 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2016 est.) 4.8% (2015 est.) 2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,600 (2016 est.) $1,500 (2015 est.) $1,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 11.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 11.5% of GDP (2015 est.) 7.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 92.2%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 6.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 20.7%
imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 92.2%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 6.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 20.7%
imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Industries: agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 731,300 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 82% industry and
services: 18% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 67% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28% (2002)
Budget: revenues: $171.3 million
expenditures: $212.7 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2016 est.) 1.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$20 million (2016 est.) -$11 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $163.2 million (2016 est.) $202.9 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, shrimp; cashews, peanuts, palm kernels, raw and sawn lumber
Exports - partners: India 63.5%, Nigeria 20.3%, China 5.7%, Togo 5.6% (2015)
Imports: $196.8 million (2016 est.) $199.5 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Imports - partners: Portugal 27.1%, Senegal 12.8%, China 6.5%, Spain 5.5%, Cuba 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external: $1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 34 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 31.62 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 39,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,423 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 1.238 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile cellular communications

domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile cellular teledensity is roughly 70 per 100 persons

international: country code - 245 (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple interna (2007)
Internet country code: .gw
Internet users: total: 61,000 percent of population: 3.5% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 8 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Roadways: total 3,455 km
paved: 965 km
unpaved: 2,490 km (2002)
Waterways: (rivers are partially navigable; many inlets and creeks provide shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
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Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.85% of GDP (2012) 1.81% of GDP (2011) 1.85% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Guinea-Bissau
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 8,601 (Senegal) (2015)
Illicit drugs: increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations due to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography near the capital facilitates drug smuggling
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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