Algeria Population: 40,263,711


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After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace. Since 2014, Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to fund the government and finance the large subsidies for the population has fallen under stress because of declining oil prices.

Largest country in Africa
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Area: total: 2,381,741 sq km
land: 2,381,741 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,734 km border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km
Coastline: 998 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use: agricultural land: 17.3% arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 13.8% forest: 0.6%
other: 82% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 5,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1% note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
Languages: Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
Religions: Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish)
Population: 40,263,711 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.06% (male 5,991,164/female 5,709,616)
15-24 years: 15.95% (male 3,287,448/female 3,136,624)
25-54 years: 42.88% (male 8,737,944/female 8,526,137)
55-64 years: 6.61% (male 1,349,291/female 1,312,339)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,027,126/female 1,186,022) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.6%
youth dependency ratio: 43.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 9.1%
potential support ratio: 11% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.77% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 70.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ALGIERS (capital) 2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.8 years male: 75.5 years
female: 78.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 61.4% (2006)
Health expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.21 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 81.8% of population
total: 83.6% of population

urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 18.2% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 82.2% of population
total: 87.6% of population

urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 17.8% of population
total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 8,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3% (2013)
Education expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 87.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 25.3% male: 22.1%
female: 41.4% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution: several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek SELLAL (since 28 April 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president from the majority party in Parliament

election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People's Assembly - last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held on 17 May 2017)

election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 208, RND 68, AAV 49, FFS 27, PT 24, FNA 9, El Adala 8, MPA 7, PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 31, independent 18
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI] Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES] Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD] Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL] Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU] Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ] Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA] Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH] Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID] Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP) Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI] Movement for National Reform or Islah [Djilali GHOUINI] Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI] National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA] National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA] National Liberation Front or FLN [Djamel OULD ABBES] National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI] National Republican Alliance New Dawn Party or PFJ New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI] Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE] Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID] Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS] Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI] Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH] Vanguard of Freedoms [Ali BENFLIS] Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA] Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE] note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leaders: Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD] SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR] Youth Action Rally or RAJ
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red
National anthem: name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI

note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 22 September 2014)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algiers
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000
FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064
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Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist postindependence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports have enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability and amass large foreign currency reserves and a large budget stabilization fund available for tapping. In addition, Algeria's external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. The government's efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Since late 2014, declining oil prices forced the government to spend down its reserves at a high rate in order to sustain social spending on salaries and subsidies, particularly since the government has been unable to boost exports of hydrocarbons or significantly grow its nonoil sector. In 2015, the Algerian Government imposed further restrictions on imports in an effort to reduce withdrawals from its foreign exchange reserves. The Government also increased the value-added tax on electricity and fuel, but said it would address subsidies at a later date. Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $609.4 billion (2016 est.) $588.4 billion (2015 est.) $566.3 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $168.3 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2016 est.) 3.9% (2015 est.) 3.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $15,000 (2016 est.) $14,700 (2015 est.) $14,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 32.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 34.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 43.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 41.5%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 6.6%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.4% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 41.5%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 6.6%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 11.78 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 30.9%
services: 58.4% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 12.4% (2016 est.) 11.2% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 23% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.3 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $42.69 billion
expenditures: $66.45 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 16.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 9.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.7% (2016 est.) 4.8% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$25.34 billion (2016 est.) -$27.45 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $26.91 billion (2016 est.) $36 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)
Exports - partners: Spain 18.8%, France 11.2%, US 8.8%, Italy 8.7%, UK 7.1%, Brazil 5.2%, Tunisia 4.9%, Germany 4.5% (2015)
Imports: $44.6 billion (2016 est.) $50.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners: China 15.6%, France 14.4%, Italy 9.4%, Spain 7.4%, Germany 5.6%, Russia 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $115 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $144.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $5.934 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $5.143 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $25.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $25.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.025 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar - 110.1 (2016 est.) 100.691 (2015 est.) 100.691 (2014 est.) 80.579 (2013 est.) 77.54 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 49 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 98% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.37 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.146 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 2,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 505,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 430,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 435,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 108,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 83.29 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 37.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 40.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 4.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 128 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 45.928 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the l

domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2015, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 116 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; p (2015)
Broadcast media: state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operat (2007)
Internet country code: .dz
Internet users: total: 15.105 million percent of population: 38.2% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 157 (2016)
Airports (paved runways): total 64
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 93

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 113,655 km
paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)
unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 38

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda
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Military branches: People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP), Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2009)
Military service age and obligation: 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2012)
Military expenditures: 4.48% of GDP (2012) 4.36% of GDP (2011) 4.48% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2015) IDPs: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2013)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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