Democratic Republic of the Congo Population: 81,331,050


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Established as an official Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. In 2009, following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC, the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed, prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict led to large population displacements and significant human rights abuses before the M23 was pushed out of DRC to Uganda and Rwanda in late 2013 by a joint DRC and UN offensive. In addition, the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, the Allied Democratic Forces, and assorted Mai Mai militias. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency; the next presidential election is scheduled for late 2016.

Second largest country in Africa (after Algeria) and largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa; straddles the equator; has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands
Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola
Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E
Area: total: 2,344,858 sq km
land: 2,267,048 sq km
water: 77,810 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 10,481 km border countries (9): Angola 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 236 km, Central African Republic 1,747 km, Republic of the Congo 1,229 km, Rwanda 221 km, South Sudan 714 km, Tanzania 479 km, Uganda 877 km, Zambia 2,332 km
Coastline: 37 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: since 2011 the DRC has a Common Interest Zone agreement with Angola for the mutual development of off-shore resources
Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
Land use: agricultural land: 11.4% arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 8% forest: 67.9%
other: 20.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 110 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley volcanism: Nyiragongo (elev. 3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing environmental damage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
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Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Population: 81,331,050 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.2% (male 17,300,707/female 17,024,082)
15-24 years: 21.44% (male 8,747,038/female 8,694,000)
25-54 years: 30.13% (male 12,227,971/female 12,273,304)
55-64 years: 3.58% (male 1,374,050/female 1,535,973)
65 years and over: 2.65% (male 910,456/female 1,243,469) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 95.9%
youth dependency ratio: 90.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8%
potential support ratio: 17.2% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.4 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.42% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 34.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 42.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KINSHASA (capital) 11.587 million; Lubumbashi 2.015 million; Mbuji-Mayi 20.007 million; Kananga 1.169 million; Kisangani 1.04 million; Bukavu 832,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 693 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 69.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 73.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.3 years male: 55.8 years
female: 58.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 17.7% (2010)
Health expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density: 0.8 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 81.1% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population

urban: 18.9% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 28.7% of population
total: 28.7% of population

urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 71.3% of population
total: 71.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.85% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 374,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 21,700 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23.4% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 63.8%
male: 78.1%
female: 50% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2013)
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Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: DRC
local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
local short form: RDC
former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
abbreviation: DRC
etymology: named for the Congo River, most of which lies within the DRC; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning "hunters"
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Kinshasa
geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 26 provinces (provinces, singular - province); Bas-Uele, Equateur, Haut-Katanga, Haut-Lomami, Haut-Uele, Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa
Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
National holiday: Independence Day, 30 June (1960)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006; amended 2011 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary, and tribal law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Samy BADIBANGA Ntita (since 17 November 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Emmanuel RAMAZANI Shadary (since December 2016)

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2011 (originally scheduled for 27 November 2016 but rescheduled for April 2018); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Joseph KABILA reelected president; percent of vote - Joseph KABILA (PPRD) 49%, Etienne TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 32.3%, other 18.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate (108 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (500 seats; 439 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 61 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2007 (follow-on elections have been delayed); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be held on 27 November 2016)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independent 26, other 18; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 62, UDPS 41, PPPD 29, MSR 27, MLC 22, PALU 19, UNC 17, ARC 16, AFDC 15, ECT 11, RRC 11, independent 16, other 214 (includes numerous political parties that won 10 or fewer seats and 2 constituencies where voting was halted); note - the November 2011 election was marred by violence including the destruction of ballots in two constituencies resulting in the closure of polling sites; election results were delayed three months, strongly contested, and continue to be unresolved
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO] Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA] Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI] Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA] People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA] Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI] Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA] Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE] Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Allied Democratic Forces or ADF (anti-Ugandan government rebel groups] Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or FARDC Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda or FDLR (Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's genocide in 1994) Le Rassemblement (established in 2016 as a coalition of members from several political parties)
National symbol(s): leopard; national colors: sky blue, red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Debout Congolaise" (Arise Congolese)
lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi

note: adopted 1960; replaced when the country was known as Zaire; but readopted in 1997
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francois Nkuna BALUMUENE (since 23 September 2015)
chancery: 1726 M Street, NW, Suite 601, Washington, DC, 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690 through 7691
FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609 representative office: New York New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James C. SWAN (since 6 August 2013)
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa, Gombe
mailing address: Unit 2220, DPO AE 09828
telephone: [243] (081) 556-0151
FAX: [243] (081) 556-0175
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The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast natural resource wealth - is slowly recovering after decades of decline. Systemic corruption since independence in 1960, combined with countrywide instability and conflict that began in the early-90s, has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and increased external debt. With the installation of a transitional government in 2003 after peace accords, economic conditions slowly began to improve as the transitional government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA began implementing reforms. Progress has been slow to reach the interior of the country although clear changes are evident in Kinshasa and Lubumbashi. Renewed activity in the mining sector, the source of most export income, has boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth in recent years, although recent commodity price declines threaten to erase progress. An uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems for the large mining sector and for the economy as a whole. The country marked its thirteenth consecutive year of positive economic expansion in 2015. Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. The DRC signed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF in 2009 and received $12 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief in 2010, but the IMF at the end of 2012 suspended the last three payments under the loan facility - worth $240 million - because of concerns about the lack of transparency in mining contracts. In 2012, the DRC updated its business laws by adhering to OHADA, the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $66.01 billion (2016 est.) $63.51 billion (2015 est.) $59.4 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $39.82 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2016 est.) 6.9% (2015 est.) 9.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $800 (2016 est.) $800 (2015 est.) $700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 14.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 27.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 73.6%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.7%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 73.6%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.7%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, plantains, peanuts, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
Industries: mining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 31.08 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 63% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)
Budget: revenues: $5.448 billion
expenditures: $5.837 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 13.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 18.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2016 est.) 1.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$308 million (2016 est.) -$1.436 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $9.316 billion (2016 est.) $10.35 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee
Exports - partners: China 43.5%, Zambia 25%, South Korea 4.9%, Belgium 4.8% (2015)
Imports: $10.2 billion (2016 est.) $10.46 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners: China 20.6%, South Africa 17.7%, Zambia 12.3%, Belgium 6.9%, Zimbabwe 5.1%, India 4.7% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $774 million (31 December 2016 est.) $1.216 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $5.331 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $5.106 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Congolese francs (CDF) per US dollar - 971.6 (2016 est.) 925.99 (2015 est.) 925.99 (2014 est.) 925.23 (2013 est.) 920.25 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 8.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 69 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 98.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 20,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 180 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 24,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 22,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 8.495 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 8.495 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 991.1 million cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 37.753 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed-line infrastructure

domestic: state-owned operator providing less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services has surged and mobile teledensity is over 45 per 100 persons

international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations - 2 with near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 (2007)
Internet country code: .cd
Internet users: total: 3.016 million percent of population: 3.8% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 198 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 172

1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 87
under 914 m: 65 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 62 km; oil 77 km; refined products 756 km (2013)
Railways: total 4,007 km

narrow gauge: 3,882 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 153,497 km
paved: 2,794 km
unpaved: 150,703 km (2004)
Waterways: 15,000 km (including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Republic of the Congo 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Banana river or lake port(s): Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo); Kindu (Lualaba); Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu); Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)
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Military branches: Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Army, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.72% of GDP (2012) 1.53% of GDP (2011) 1.72% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda Government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 245,052 (Rwanda); 5,597 South Sudan (2015); 103,717 (Central African Republic); 31,310 (Burundi) (2016) IDPs: 1,722,082 (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; most IDPs are in eastern provinces) (2016)
Illicit drugs: one of Africa's biggest producers of cannabis, but mostly for domestic consumption; traffickers exploit lax shipping controls to transit pseudoephedrine through the capital; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center (2008)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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