Mozambique Population: 27,233,789


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Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2015. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have intermittently engaged in a low-level insurgency since 2012, although a late December 2016 ceasefire held throughout 2018 and has facilitated efforts toward a peacebuilding initiative and a constitutional amendment to devolve some governance to the provinces. Since October 2017, the northern province of Cabo Delgado has experienced violent extremist attacks.

    The Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Area: total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,783 km border countries (6): Malawi 1498 km, South Africa 496 km, Eswatini 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1402 km
Coastline: 2,470 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical to subtropical
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use: agricultural land: 56.3% (2011 est.) arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 49.6% (2011 est.) forest: 43.7% (2011 est.)
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Current Environment Issues: increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; soil erosion; deforestation; water pollution caused by artisanal mining; pollution of surface and coastal waters; wildlife preservation (elephant poaching for ivory)
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Languages: Emakhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Xichangana 8.6%, Cinyanja 8.1, Cisena 7.1%, Elomwe 7.1%, Echuwabo 4.7%, Cindau 3.8%, Xitswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 27.2%, Muslim 18.9%, Zionist Christian 15.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.3%, Anglican 1.7%, other 4.8%, none 13.9%, unspecified 2.5% (2017 est.)
Population: 27,233,789 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.52% (male 6,097,116 /female 6,028,416)
15-24 years: 21.6% (male 2,905,254 /female 2,977,732)
25-54 years: 27.62% (male 3,525,755 /female 3,995,264)
55-64 years: 3.37% (male 442,990 /female 475,900)
65 years and over: 2.88% (male 359,624 /female 425,738) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 93.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.3 years
male: 16.7 years
female: 17.8 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.46% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 37.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 36% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.635 million Matola
1.102 million MAPUTO (capital)
775,000 Nampula (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.9 years (2011 est.) median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 64 deaths/1,000 live births male: 66 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.1 years male: 53.3 years
female: 54.9 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.02 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.1% (2015)
Physicians density: 0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population

urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 42.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 10.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 20.5% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 89.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 12.5% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2.1 million (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 70,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.2% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 15.6% (2011)
Education expenditures: 6.5% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 56%
male: 70.8%
female: 43.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years male: 10 years female: 9 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.4% male: 7.7% female: 7.1% (2015 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa, People's Republic of Mozambique
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: reputedly named after the Maputo River, which drains into Maputo Bay south of the city
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution: history: previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the Assembly of the Republic membership; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions including the independence and sovereignty of the state, the republican form of government, basic rights and freedoms, and universal suffrage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; referenda not required for passage of other amendments; amended 2007, 2018 (2018)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)

head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president elected directly by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held on 15 October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.2%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17; composition - men 151, women 99, percent of women 39.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary Magistracy is responsible for judiciary management and discipline judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic; vice president appointed by the president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and ratified by the Assembly of the Republic; other judges elected by the Assembly; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the Assembly, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO] Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUSI] Mozambican National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Ossufo MOMADE] Optimistic Party for the Development of Mozambique or Podemos [Helder Mendonca]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s):
national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
National anthem: name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown

note: adopted 2002
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos DOS SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis W. Hearne (since 22 February 2019)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Caixa Postal, 783, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
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At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP, in purchasing power parity terms, from $4 billion in 1993 to about $37 billion in 2017. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, about half the population remains below the poverty line and subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans secured between 2012-14 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion; this prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. An international audit was performed on Mozambique’s debt in 2016-17, but debt restructuring and resumption of donor support have yet to occur. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but the sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to slower growth in 2016-17. Two major International consortiums, led by American companies ExxonMobil and Anadarko, are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. . The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $37.09 billion (2017 est.) $35.76 billion (2016 est.) $34.46 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $12.59 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2017 est.) 3.8% (2016 est.) 6.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,300 (2017 est.) $1,200 (2016 est.) $1,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.8% of GDP (2017 est.) -1.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 69.7% (2017 est.) government consumption: 27.2% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 13.9% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 38.3% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -70.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 23.9% (2017 est.) industry: 19.3% (2017 est.) services: 56.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries: aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 12.9 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 74.4%
industry: 3.9%
services: 21.7% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 24.5% (2017 est.) 25% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 46.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.6 (2008) 47.3 (2002)
Budget: revenues: 3.356 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.054 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 102.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 121.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.3% (2017 est.) 19.2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.824 billion (2017 est.) -$4.28 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $4.725 billion (2017 est.) $3.328 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners: India 28.1%, Netherlands 24.4%, South Africa 16.7% (2017)
Imports: $5.223 billion (2017 est.) $4.733 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: South Africa 36.8%, China 7%, UAE 6.8%, India 6.2%, Portugal 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.361 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.081 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $10.91 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $10.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 64.4 (2017 est.) 63.067 (2016 est.) 63.067 (2015 est.) 39.983 (2014 est.) 31.367 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 18.39 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 11.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 12.88 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 9.928 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.626 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 16% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 83% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 26,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 25,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 6.003 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.841 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 4.162 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 11.12 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 11,875,506
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the mobile segment has shown strong growth given competition; poor fixed-line infrastructure means most Internet access is through mobile accounts; DSL, cable broadband, WiMAX (broadband over long distances), 3G and some fibre broadband available; LTE services launched (2018)

domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; operators provide coverage that includes all the main cities and key roads; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and 45 per 100 mobile-cellular teledensity (2018)

international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems allows for reduced cost of bandwidth and retail broadband prices; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Broadcast media: 1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)
Internet country code: .mz
Internet users: total: 4,543,284
percent of population: 17.5% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 98 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 21
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 29 (2013)
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Pipelines: 972 km gas, 278 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 4,787 km
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 31,083 km
(2015) paved: 7,365 km (2015)
unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
Waterways: 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 27

by type: general cargo 10, other 17 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
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Military branches: Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.81% of GDP (2017) 1.03% of GDP (2016) 0.99% of GDP (2015) 1.02% of GDP (2014) 0.99% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 9,624 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 7,841 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2019) IDPs: 14,000 (violence between the government and an opposition group, violence associated with extremists groups in 2018) (2018)
Illicit drugs: southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
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