Luxembourg Population: 605,764


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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.

    Landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world
Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E
Area: total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware
Land Boundaries: total: 327 km border countries (3): Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 50.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 24% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.6% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 26.1% (2011 est.) forest: 33.5% (2011 est.)
other: 15.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional flooding
Current Environment Issues: air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
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Nationality: noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups: Luxembourger 51.1%, Portuguese 15.7%, French 7.5%, Italian 3.6%, Belgian 3.3%, German 2.1%, Spanish 1.1%, British 1%, other 14.6% (2019 est.) note: data represent population by nationality
Languages: Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)
Religions: Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.4%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.5%, none 26.8% (2010 est.)
Population: 605,764 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.74% (male 52,243 /female 49,183)
15-24 years: 12.06% (male 37,391 /female 35,650)
25-54 years: 44.18% (male 137,381 /female 130,252)
55-64 years: 11.9% (male 36,670 /female 35,442)
65 years and over: 15.11% (male 41,002 /female 50,550) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 23.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 39.3 years
male: 38.7 years
female: 39.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.9% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 11.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 14.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 91% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 30.1 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.4 years male: 79.9 years
female: 85 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 3.03 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 4.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,100 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.6% (2016)
Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years female: 14 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 15.4% male: 17.2% female: 13.2% (2017 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the city that grew around the fortress
Administrative divisions: 12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz
Independence: 1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday: National Day (Birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
Constitution: history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868 amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than one-quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2009 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Felix BRAZ (since 5 December 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies

elections: last held on 14 October 2018 (next to be held by October 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 28.3%, LSAP 17.6%, DP 16.9%, Green Party 15.1%, ADR 8.3%, Pirate Party 6.4%, The Left 5.5%, other 1.9%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 12, LSAP 10, Green Party 9, ADR 4, Pirate Party 2, The Left 2; composition - men 46, women 14, percent of women 23.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts
Political parties and leaders: Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS] Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ] Democratic Party or DP [Corinne CAHEN] Green Party [Francoise FOLMER, Christian KMIOTEK] Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN] The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee] other minor parties
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): red, rampant lion;
national colors: red, white, light blue
National anthem: name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvie LUCAS (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James Randolph "Randy" EVANS (since 19 June 2018)
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: Unit 3560, APO-AE 09126-3560 (official mail)
telephone: [352] 46-01-23 00
FAX: [352] 46-14-01
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This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Luxembourg, the only Grand Duchy in the world, is a landlocked country in northwestern Europe surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. Despite its small landmass and small population, Luxembourg is the fifth-wealthiest country in the world when measured on a gross domestic product (PPP) per capita basis. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro zone, and it maintains a healthy budgetary position, with a 2017 surplus of 0.5% of GDP, and the lowest public debt level in the region. Since 2002, Luxembourg’s government has proactively implemented policies and programs to support economic diversification and to attract foreign direct investment. The government focused on key innovative industries that showed promise for supporting economic growth: logistics, information and communications technology (ICT); health technologies, including biotechnology and biomedical research; clean energy technologies, and more recently, space technology and financial services technologies. The economy has evolved and flourished, posting strong GDP growth of 3.4% in 2017, far outpacing the European average of 1.8%. Luxembourg remains a financial powerhouse – the financial sector accounts for more than 35% of GDP - because of the exponential growth of the investment fund sector through the launch and development of cross-border funds (UCITS) in the 1990s. Luxembourg is the world’s second-largest investment fund asset domicile, after the US, with $4 trillion of assets in custody in financial institutions. Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure, as well as the "LuxLeaks" scandal, which revealed advantageous tax treatments offered to foreign corporations. In 2015, the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking secrecy - has constricted banking activity. Likewise, changes to the way EU members collect taxes from e-commerce has cut Luxembourg’s sales tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and to reduce some direct social benefits as part of the tax reform package of 2017. The tax reform package also included reductions in the corporate tax rate and increases in deductions for families, both intended to increase purchasing power and increase competitiveness.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $62.11 billion (2017 est.) $60.71 billion (2016 est.) $58.9 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $62.53 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2017 est.) 3.1% (2016 est.) 2.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $105,100 (2017 est.) $105,400 (2016 est.) $104,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 22.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 23% of GDP (2016 est.) 23.2% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.) government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.) industry: 12.8% (2017 est.) services: 86.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products
Industries: banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 282,800 (2017 est.) note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 20%
services: 78.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.8% (2017 est.) 6.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 30.4 (2013 est.) 26 (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: 27.75 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 26.8 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 44.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 23% of GDP (2017 est.) 20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2017 est.) 0% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $3.112 billion (2017 est.) $2.988 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $15.99 billion (2017 est.) $16.37 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners: Germany 25.6%, Belgium 17.6%, France 14%, Netherlands 5.1%, Italy 4.1%, UK 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $20.66 billion (2017 est.) $20.41 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods
Imports - partners: Belgium 32%, Germany 24.9%, France 11.1%, US 5.7%, Netherlands 4.9% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $878 million (31 December 2017 est.) $974 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $3.781 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $3.806 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: n/a
Market value of publicly traded shares: $47.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $63.17 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $78.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 334.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 6.475 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 7.718 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.709 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 25% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 67% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 59,850 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 59,020 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 792.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 792.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 10.72 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 794,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system; by 2020 the government’s program is to provide a 1Gb/s service to all citizens, and to make Luxembourg the first fully fibred country in Europe; new law requiring  SIM cards be registered has slowed down growth for mobile subscribers; 5G launch by 2020 (2018)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 46 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated with 134 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)

international: country code - 352
Broadcast media: Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available
Internet country code: .lu
Internet users: total: 567,698
percent of population: 97.5% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 275 km
(2014) standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (275 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 2,875 km
Waterways: 37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 152

by type: bulk carrier 4, container ship 9, general cargo 6, oil tanker 2, other 131 (2018)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)
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Military branches: Luxembourg Army (Armee Luxembourgeoise) (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2017)
Military expenditures: 0.55% of GDP (2018) 0.52% of GDP (2017) 0.4% of GDP (2016) 0.43% of GDP (2015) 0.42% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 83 (2018)
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