Brunei Darussalam Population: 450,565


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The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. In 2017, Brunei celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Sultan Hassanal BOLKIAH’s accession to the throne.

    Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; the eastern part, the Temburong district, is an exclave and is almost an enclave within Malaysia
Location: Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Area: total: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land Boundaries: total: 266 km border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km
Coastline: 161 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use: agricultural land: 2.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 0.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0.6% (2011 est.) forest: 71.8% (2011 est.)
other: 25.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Current Environment Issues: no major environmental problems, but air pollution control is becoming a concern; seasonal trans-boundary haze from forest fires in Indonesia
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups: Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other 24% (2016 est.)
Languages: Malay (Bahasa Melayu) (official), English, Chinese dialects
Religions: Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)
Population: 450,565 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.82% (male 52,995 /female 49,836)
15-24 years: 16.8% (male 37,707 /female 37,985)
25-54 years: 46.9% (male 100,740 /female 110,596)
55-64 years: 8.3% (male 18,859 /female 18,551)
65 years and over: 5.17% (male 11,336 /female 11,960) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 38.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 32.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.5 years
male: 30 years
female: 31 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.55% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 16.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 3.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 241,000 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) (2011) note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.5 years male: 75.2 years
female: 80 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 1.77 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population (2015)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 14.1% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 9.6% (2009)
Education expenditures: 4.4% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 96%
male: 97.5%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years female: 15 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 28.9% male: 28.4% female: 29.5% (2017 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
etymology: derivation of the name is unclear; according to legend, MUHAMMAD SHAH, who would become the first sultan of Brunei, upon discovering what would become Brunei exclaimed "Baru nah," which roughly translates as "there" or "that's it"
Government type: absolute monarchy or sultanate
Capital: name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named in 1970 after Sultan Omar Ali SAIFUDDIEN III (1914-1986; "The Father of Independence") who adopted the title of "Seri Begawan" (approximate meaning "honored lord") upon his abdication in 1967; "bandar" in Malay means "town" or "city"; the capital had previously been called Bandar Brunei (Brunei Town)
Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei dan Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 1 January 1984 (from the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection, the Sultan's birthday, 15 June
Constitution: history: drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others suspended since independence in 1984 amendments: proposed by the monarch; passage requires submission to the Privy Council for Legislative Council review and finalization takes place by proclamation; the monarch can accept or reject changes to the original proposal provided by the Legislative Council; amended 1984, 2004, 2011 (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in April 2019, the full sharia penal codes came into force and apply to Muslims and non-Muslims in parallel with present common law codes
Suffrage: 18 years of age for village elections; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (36 seats; members appointed by the sultan including 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries; members appointed for 5-year terms)

elections: appointed by the sultan

election results: NA; composition - men 33, women 3, percent of women 8.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court (consists the Court of Appeals and the High Court); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council (in London) serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court judges appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrates' Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts
Political parties and leaders: National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi] note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): royal parasol;
national colors: yellow, white, black
National anthem: name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap

note: adopted 1951
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Serbini ALI (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560 consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew J. MATTHEWS (since 15 April 2019)
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Duta, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
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Brunei is an energy-rich sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei boasts a well-educated, largely English-speaking population; excellent infrastructure; and a stable government intent on attracting foreign investment. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the world, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic hydrocarbon production. Bruneian citizens pay no personal income taxes, and the government provides free medical services and free education through the university level. The Bruneian Government wants to diversify its economy away from hydrocarbon exports to other industries such as information and communications technology and halal manufacturing, permissible under Islamic law. Brunei’s trade increased in 2016 and 2017, following its regional economic integration in the ASEAN Economic Community, and the expected ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $33.87 billion (2017 est.) $33.42 billion (2016 est.) $34.27 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $12.13 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (2017 est.) -2.5% (2016 est.) -0.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $78,900 (2017 est.) $79,000 (2016 est.) $82,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 47.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 50.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 51.9% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 25% (2017 est.) government consumption: 24.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 8.5% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 45.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -36.8% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.2% (2017 est.) industry: 56.6% (2017 est.) services: 42.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, aquaculture, transportation
Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 203,600 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2017 est.) 6.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 2.245 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.345 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 18.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -17.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 2.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.2% (2017 est.) -0.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $2.021 billion (2017 est.) $1.47 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $5.885 billion (2017 est.) $5.023 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: mineral fuels, organic chemicals
Exports - partners: Japan 27.8%, South Korea 12.4%, Thailand 11.5%, Malaysia 11.3%, India 9.3%, Singapore 7.7%, Switzerland 5%, China 4.7% (2017)
Imports: $2.998 billion (2017 est.) $2.658 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery
Imports - partners: China 19.6%, Singapore 19%, Malaysia 18.8%, US 9.2%, Germany 5.9%, Japan 4.1%, UK 4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.488 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.366 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $0 (2014) $0 (2013) note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar - 1.394 (2017 est.) 1.3814 (2016 est.) 1.3814 (2015 est.) 1.3749 (2014 est.) 1.267 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 4.014 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.771 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 821,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 100,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 127,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 10,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 18,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 6,948 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.74 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.936 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 8.268 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 260.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 10.04 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 544,732
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US; while fixed-line is slowing down, mobile broadband has taken over in the advancement in the telecoms access market; broadband penetration slow to moderate growth predicted over the next five years to 2023 (2018)

domestic: every service available; 17 per 100 fixed-line, 123 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)

international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; the South-East Asia Japan Cable System linking Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Philippines and Thailand; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Broadcast media: state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters
Internet country code: .bn
Internet users: total: 306,000
percent of population: 71.2% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: 33 km condensate, 86 km condensate/gas, 628 km gas, 492 km oil (2013)
Roadways: total 2,976 km
(2014) paved: 2,559 km (2014)
unpaved: 417 km (2014)
Waterways: 209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong Rivers are major transport links) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 100

by type: general cargo 20, LNG tanker 2, other 78 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Muara oil terminal(s): Lumut, Seria LNG terminal(s) (export): Lumut
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Military branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Force, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei), Special Forces Regiment
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)
Military expenditures: 2.87% of GDP (2017) 3.54% of GDP (2016) 3.28% of GDP (2015) 3.08% of GDP (2014) 2.28% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 20,863 (2018); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land
Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
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