Uruguay Population: 3,351,016

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 History
Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

 Geography
Second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates: 33 00 S, 56 00 W
Area: total: 176,215 sq km
land: 175,015 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land Boundaries: total: 1,591 km border countries (2): Argentina 541 km, Brazil 1,050 km
Coastline: 660 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
Land use: agricultural land: 87.2% arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 76.9% forest: 10.2%
other: 2.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,380 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groups: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
Languages: Spanish (official), Portunol, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Religions: Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006)
Population: 3,351,016 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.44% (male 348,547/female 336,435)
15-24 years: 15.78% (male 267,848/female 260,990)
25-54 years: 39.23% (male 649,702/female 664,933)
55-64 years: 10.41% (male 164,201/female 184,784)
65 years and over: 14.13% (male 189,197/female 284,379) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 55.9%
youth dependency ratio: 33.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5%
potential support ratio: 4.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 34.7 years
male: 33 years
female: 36.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.27% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 95.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MONTEVIDEO (capital) 1.707 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.2 years male: 74.1 years
female: 80.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 8.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3.74 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 2.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.9% of population
total: 99.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.1% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96.6% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 96.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.4% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.48% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 10,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 300 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.5% (2011)
Education expenditures: 4.4% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 14 years
female: 17 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 19.2% male: 15.8%
female: 24% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
etymology: the Guarani Indians named the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Montevideo
geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence: 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitution: several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the Spanish civil code
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 26 October 2014, with a runoff election on 30 November 2014 (next to be held on 27 October 2019, and a runoff if needed on 24 November 2019)

election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 15, Blanco 10, Colorado Party 4, Independent Party 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 50, Blanco 32, Colorado Party 13, Independent Party 3, Popular Assembly 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges appointed for 10-year terms, with reelection after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzagados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzagados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
Political parties and leaders: Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or EP-FA [Monica XAVIER] (a broad governing coalition that includes Liber Seregni Front (FLS) [Danilo ASTORI], Socialist Party [Monica XAVIER], Vertiente Artiguiste [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Juan Andres ROBALLO], Popular Participation Movement (MPP) [Jose MUJICA], Broad Front Commitment [Raul SENDIC], Action and Thought Current-Freedom (CAP-L) [Eleuterio FERNADEZ HUIDOBRO], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Marcos CARAMBULA], The Federal League Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay [Pedro Bordaberry] and Propuesta Batllista [Jorge AMORIN BATLLE]) Independent Party [Pablo MIERES] National Party or Blanco (including All Forward [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Jorge LARRANAGA]) Popular Assembly [Gonzalo ABELLA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: B'nai Brith Catholic Church Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association) Exporters Union of Uruguay National Chamber of Commerce and Services PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization) Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association) Uruguayan Network of Political Women other: students
International organization participation: CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI

note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois (since 23 July 2015)
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brad FREDEN (since 10 December 2014)
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 1770-2000
FAX: [598] (2) 1770-2128
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 Economy
Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor’s mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net. Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Uruguay's economic growth averaged 8% annually during the period 2004-08. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country managed to avoid a recession and keep positive growth rates, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment; GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but slowed in 2012-13 as a result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Mercosur counterparts, Argentina and Brazil.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $73.93 billion (2016 est.) $73.86 billion (2015 est.) $73.14 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $54.37 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.1% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.) 3.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $21,600 (2016 est.) $21,600 (2015 est.) $21,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 17.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 16.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 16.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 67.2%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 67.2%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: soybeans, rice, wheat; beef, dairy products; fish; lumber, cellulose
Industries: food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.736 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13%
industry: 14%
services: 73% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.6% (2016 est.) 7.5% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 18.6% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 34.4% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.3 (2010) 44.8 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $14.29 billion
expenditures: $15.9 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 62.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 66.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as in
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.2% (2016 est.) 8.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.586 billion (2016 est.) -$1.864 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $9.042 billion (2016 est.) $9.067 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: beef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products; wool
Exports - partners: China 15%, Brazil 14.4%, US 6.5%, Argentina 4.9% (2015)
Imports: $9.075 billion (2016 est.) $9.345 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: refined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones
Imports - partners: Brazil 18.2%, China 17.4%, Argentina 12.6%, US 9.1%, Germany 4.5%, Nigeria 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $21.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $20.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $23.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $21.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $272.1 million (31 December 2016 est.) $153.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $175.4 million (31 December 2012 est.) $174.6 million (31 December 2011 est.) $156.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar - 32.03 (2016 est.) 27.52 (2015 est.) 27.52 (2014 est.) 23.246 (2013 est.) 20.31 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 700 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 4.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 44.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 53.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 42,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2014 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 45,860 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 59,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 537.5 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 12,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 60 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 60 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 5.495 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 164 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fully digitalized

domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 195 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: mixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in Decemb (2010)
Internet country code: .uy
Internet users: total: 2.159 million percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 133 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 122

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 79 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 257 km; oil 160 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,641 km
standard gauge: 1,641 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 77,732 km
paved: 7,743 km
unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
Waterways: 1,600 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 16

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 8 (Argentina 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Spain 5)

registered in other countries: 1 (Liberia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Montevideo
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 Military
Military branches: Uruguayan Armed Forces: Uruguayan National Army (Ejercito Nacional Uruguaya, ENU), Uruguayan National Navy (Armada Nacional del Uruguay; includes naval air arm, Naval Rifle Corps (Cuerpo de Fusileros Navales, Fusna), Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya, FAU) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies; minimum 6-year education (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.95% of GDP (2012) 1.94% of GDP (2011) 1.95% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border
Illicit drugs: small-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs
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