Chad Population: 11,852,462

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 History
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. In January 2014, Chad began a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council.

 Geography
Note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea
Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Area: total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than three times the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 6,406 km border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use: agricultural land: 39.6% arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7% forest: 9.1%
other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 300 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
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 People
Nationality: noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups: Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 25.9%, Arab 12.6%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 8.3%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 6.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 3.6%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 2.9%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2.4%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 2.3%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 2%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.6%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.3%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 1%, other Chadian ethnicities 2.5%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.6%, foreign nationals 2.5% (Sudanese 2%) (2009 est.)
Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Religions: Muslim 58.4%, Catholic 18.5%, Protestant 16.1%, animist 4%, other 0.5%, none 2.4% (2009 est.)
Population: 11,852,462 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.63% (male 2,622,700/female 2,549,035)
15-24 years: 21.18% (male 1,225,731/female 1,285,150)
25-54 years: 28.31% (male 1,525,208/female 1,830,530)
55-64 years: 3.87% (male 202,044/female 256,936)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,957/female 208,171) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 100.7%
youth dependency ratio: 95.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9%
potential support ratio: 20.3% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.6 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 36.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 22.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.42% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 17.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 87 deaths/1,000 live births male: 92.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.2 years male: 49 years
female: 51.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 4.8% (2010)
Health expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 12.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.04% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 165,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,500 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 28.8% (2015)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 40.2%
male: 48.5%
female: 31.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 7 years male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution: several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (MPS) 5.1%, other 9.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held on 30 September 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART (includes MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP) Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR] National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE] National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO] Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE] Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY] Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA] Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

note: adopted 1960
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
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 Economy
Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking. Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales. Chad’s fiscal position is encumbered by declining oil prices, though high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in recent years. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for much public and private sector investment. Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $30.59 billion (2016 est.) $30.93 billion (2015 est.) $30.39 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.44 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.1% (2016 est.) 1.8% (2015 est.) 6.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2016 est.) $2,700 (2015 est.) $2,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 18.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 14.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 21.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 71.4%
government consumption: 4.4%
investment in fixed capital: 30.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 25.3%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 71.4%
government consumption: 4.4%
investment in fixed capital: 30.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 25.3%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industries: oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate: -5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 5.457 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and
services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 43.3 (2011 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.626 billion
expenditures: $2.163 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 35.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 33.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2016 est.) 4.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$907 million (2016 est.) -$1.353 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $4.053 billion (2016 est.) $3.965 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
Exports - partners: US 58.5%, India 13.3%, Japan 11.3%, China 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $3.075 billion (2016 est.) $3.071 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: France 16.5%, China 14.2%, Cameroon 11%, US 6.4%, India 6%, Belgium 5.7%, Italy 4.8% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $627.5 million (31 December 2016 est.) $382.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $1.875 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.802 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA (31 December 2010) $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 41,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 120,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 105,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,215 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 5.466 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density

domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 45 per 100 persons

international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
Internet country code: .td
Internet users: total: 314,000 percent of population: 2.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 59 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 582 km (2013)
Roadways: total 40,000 km


note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
Waterways: (Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
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 Military
Military branches: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)
Military expenditures: NA% (2012) 2.28% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 309,669 (Sudan); 70,310 (Central African Republic); 8,377 (Nigeria) (2016) IDPs: 58,748 (majority are in the east) (2016)
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