Saint Pierre and Miquelon Population: 5,595

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 History
First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.

 Geography
Vegetation scanty; the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland
Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)
Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 W
Area: total: 242 sq km
land: 242 sq km
water: 0 sq km

note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Size comparison: one and half times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 120 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy
Terrain: mostly barren rock
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: agricultural land: 8.7% arable land 8.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 12.5%
other: 78.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard
Current Environment Issues: recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment
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 People
Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Languages: French (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%
Population: 5,595 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.57% (male 449/female 422)
15-24 years: 9.06% (male 263/female 244)
25-54 years: 42.29% (male 1,165/female 1,201)
55-64 years: 13.6% (male 399/female 362)
65 years and over: 19.48% (male 456/female 634) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 45.9 years
male: 45.4 years
female: 46.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.09% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 7.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -8.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 90.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SAINT-PIERRE (capital) 5,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.5 years male: 78.2 years
female: 83 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
etymology: Saint-Pierre is named after Saint PETER, the patron saint of fishermen; Miquelon may be a corruption of the Basque name Mikelon
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France
Capital: name: Saint-Pierre
geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Administrative divisions: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon
Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
National holiday: Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1789)
Constitution: 4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: French civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012); represented by Prefect Jean-Regis BORIUS (since 2016)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 February 2007)

cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote to serve 6-year terms) note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 member to the French Senate; elections last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held not later than September 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 1 (affiliated with UMP); Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 member to the French National Assembly; elections last held on 17 June 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ensemble pour l'Avenir 1 (affiliated with PRG)

elections: elections last held on 18 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - AD 52.5%, Ensemble pour l'Avenir 47.5%; seats by party - AD 14, Ensemble pour l'Avenir 5
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA) judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA

subordinate courts: NA
Political parties and leaders: Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UMP) Togerther for the Future (Ensemble pour l'Avenir) (affiliated with PRG)
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: UPU, WFTU (NGOs)
National symbol(s): 16th-century sailing ship
National anthem:

note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
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 Economy
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector. The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $215.3 million (2006 est.)

note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million GDP (purchasing power parity): $215.3 million (2006 est.) note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $215.3 million (2006 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $215.3 million (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA% NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $34,900 (2006 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $34,900 (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products: vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 3,194 (2006) 3,194 (2006)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 18%
industry: 41%
services: 41% (1996 est.) agriculture: 18% industry: 41% services: 41% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.9% (2008 est.) 9.9% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $70 million
expenditures: $60 million (1996 est.) revenues: $70 million expenditures: $60 million (1996 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 32.5% of GDP (1996 est.) 32.5% of GDP (1996 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2010) 8.1% (2005) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2010) 8.1% (2005)
Exports: $6.641 million (2010 est.) $5.5 million (2005 est.) $6.641 million (2010 est.) $5.5 million (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts
Imports: $95.35 million (2010 est.) $68.2 million (2005 est.) $95.35 million (2010 est.) $68.2 million (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
Debt - external: $NA $NA
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.7752 (2012 est.) euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.7752 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 45 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 41.85 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 27,600 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 97.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 630 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 624.9 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate

international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system
Broadcast media: 2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2007)
Internet country code: .pm
Internet users: total: 4,500 percent of population: 79.5% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 117 km
paved: 80 km
unpaved: 37 km (2009)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saint-Pierre
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of France
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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