Azerbaijan Population: 10,046,516

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 History
Azerbaijan - a secular nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan remains involved in the protracted Nagorno-Karabakh conflict with Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh was a primarily ethnic Armenian region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan. In the late Soviet period, a separatist movement developed which sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh began in 1988 and escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a ceasefire took effect in May 1994, separatists, with Armenian support, controlled Nagorno‑Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. The 1994 ceasefire continues to hold, although violence continues along the line of contact separating the opposing forces, as well as the Azerbaijan-Armenia international border. The final status of Nagorno-Karabakh remains the subject of international mediation by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Minsk Group, which works to help the sides settle the conflict peacefully. The OSCE Minsk Group is co‑chaired by the United States, France, and Russia. In the 25 years following its independence, Azerbaijan succeeded in significantly reducing the poverty rate and has directed revenues from its oil and gas production to develop the country’s infrastructure. However, corruption remains a problem, and the government has been accused of authoritarianism. The country’s leadership has remained in the Aliyev family since Heydar ALIYEV became president in 1993 and was succeeded by his son, President Ilham ALIYEV in 2003. Following two national referendums in the past several years that eliminated presidential term limits and extended presidential terms from 5 to 7 years, President ALIYEV secured a fourth term as president in April 2018 in an election that international observers noted had serious shortcomings. Reforms are underway to diversify the country’s non-oil economy and additional reforms are needed to address weaknesses in government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, and the court system.

 Geography
    Both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Area: total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Size comparison: about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
Land Boundaries: total: 2,468 km border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Land use: agricultural land: 57.6% (2016 est.) arable land: 22.8% (2016 est.)
permanent crops: 2.7% (2016 est.) permanent pasture: 32.1% (2016 est.) forest: 11.3% (2016 est.)
other: 31.1% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land: 14,277 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: droughts
Current Environment Issues: local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton; surface and underground water are polluted by untreated municipal and industrial wastewater and agricultural run-off
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic groups: Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% (2009 est.) note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians
Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
Religions: Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan, percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Population: 10,046,516 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.05% (male 1,233,424 /female 1,082,007)
15-24 years: 14.03% (male 743,142 /female 666,550)
25-54 years: 45.44% (male 2,247,545 /female 2,317,630)
55-64 years: 10.67% (male 493,555 /female 578,440)
65 years and over: 6.81% (male 262,989 /female 421,234) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 40.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 32.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 31.7 years
male: 30.2 years
female: 33.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.83% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 15.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 55.7% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.286 million BAKU (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.2 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 23 deaths/1,000 live births male: 23.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73 years male: 70 years
female: 76.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 54.9% (2011)
Physicians density: 3.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 4.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 94.7% of population
rural: 77.8% of population
total: 87% of population

unimproved:
urban: 5.3% of population
rural: 22.2% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 91.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 86.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 89.3% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 13.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 8,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <500 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.9% (2013)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years female: 14 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 13.4% male: 11.4% female: 15.8% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name translates as "Land of Fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time
etymology: the name derives from the Persian designation of the city "bad-kube" meaning "wind-pounded city" and refers to the harsh winds and severe snow storms that can hit the city

note: at approximately 28 m below sea level, Baku's elevation makes it the lowest capital city in the world
Administrative divisions: 66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular); rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab; cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
Independence: 30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
National holiday: Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016 (2017)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Novruz MAMMADOV (since 21 April 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded presidential terms from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president

election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 69, CSP 2, AVP 1, Civil Unity 1, CUP 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Democratic Reforms 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity Party 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, independent 43, invalid 1; composition - men 104, women 21, percent of women 16.8%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
Political parties and leaders: Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI] Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV] Islamic Party of Azerbaijan [Mavsum SAMADOV] Musavat [Arif HAJILI] Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI] Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI] National Renaissance Party Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV] Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI] Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV] Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
International organization participation: ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): flames of fire;
national colors: blue, red, green
National anthem: name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV

note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Earle LITZENBERGER (since 12 March 2019)
embassy: 111 Azadliq Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
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 Economy
Prior to the decline in global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports and to some non-export sectors. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa Pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. First gas to Turkey through the SGC is expected in 2018 with project completion expected by 2020-21. Declining oil prices caused a 3.1% contraction in GDP in 2016, and a 0.8% decline in 2017, highlighted by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline was accompanied by higher inflation, a weakened banking sector, and two sharp currency devaluations in 2015. Azerbaijan’s financial sector continued to struggle. In May 2017, Baku allowed the majority state-owed International Bank of Azerbaijan (IBA), the nation’s largest bank, to default on some of its outstanding debt and file for restructuring in Azerbaijani courts; IBA also filed in US and UK bankruptcy courts to have its restructuring recognized in their respective jurisdictions. Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. The government has, however, made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports - mainly in the agricultural sector - with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the US, and others. It is also improving Baku airport and the Caspian Sea port of Alat for use as a regional transportation and logistics hub. Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to develop export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the president approved a strategic roadmap for economic reforms that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, information technology, and tourism. In October 2017, the long-awaited Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway, stretching from the Azerbaijani capital to Kars in north-eastern Turkey, began limited service.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $172.2 billion (2017 est.) $172.1 billion (2016 est.) $177.6 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $40.67 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.1% (2017 est.) -3.1% (2016 est.) 0.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $17,500 (2017 est.) $17,700 (2016 est.) $18,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 24.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 22.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 27.3% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.6% (2017 est.) government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.6% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 48.7% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 6.1% (2017 est.) industry: 53.5% (2017 est.) services: 40.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Industries: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -3.8% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 5.118 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 37%
industry: 14.3%
services: 48.9% (2014)
Unemployment rate: 5% (2017 est.) 5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 4.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.7 (2008) 36.5 (2001)
Budget: revenues: 9.556 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 10.22 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 54.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (2017 est.) 12.6% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $1.685 billion (2017 est.) -$1.363 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $15.15 billion (2017 est.) $13.21 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
Exports - partners: Italy 23.2%, Turkey 13.6%, Israel 6.1%, Russia 5.4%, Germany 5%, Czech Republic 4.6%, Georgia 4.3% (2017)
Imports: $9.037 billion (2017 est.) $9.004 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners: Russia 17.7%, Turkey 14.8%, China 9.9%, US 8.3%, Ukraine 5.3%, Germany 5.1% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.681 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $7.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $17.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $79.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $73.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $19.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $17.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar - 1.723 (2017 est.) 1.5957 (2016 est.) 1.5957 (2015 est.) 1.0246 (2014 est.) 0.7844 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 23.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 20.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 265 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 114 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 7.876 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 84% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 789,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 718,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 7 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 138,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 100,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 46,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,576 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 16.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 10.34 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 8.042 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.095 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 35.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 10.127 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 102 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market; Azerbaijan has moderate mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration compared to other Asian nations; Pre-5G network operating on the TD-LTE standard (2018)

domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 102 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan) (2018)

international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2
Broadcast media: 3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; note - all broadcast media is pro-government, and most private broadcast media outlets are owned by entities directly linked to the government
Internet country code: .az
Internet users: total: 7,720,502
percent of population: 78.2% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 37 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 30
(2017) over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7
(2013)
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: 89 km condensate, 3890 km gas, 2446 km oil (2013)
Railways: total 2,944 km
(2017) broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
Roadways: total 24,981 km
(2013)
Merchant marine: total 313

by type: general cargo 48, oil tanker 48, other 217 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
Military expenditures: 3.64% of GDP (2016) 5.61% of GDP (2015) 4.56% of GDP (2014) 4.54% of GDP (2013) 4.66% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 344,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2018)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2018)
Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
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